top of page

The Thirst for Victory: Dehydration's Impact on Physical Performance in Rugby

Introduction


Rugby is a sport of immense physical demands and unyielding competition, where victory hinges on the finest margins. While the importance of hydration is universally acknowledged, its true significance in rugby transcends mere prevention of dehydration. In this post, we delve deeper into the multifaceted aspects of hydration in rugby, emphasising the influence of dehydration on power output, cognitive function, and overall in-match performance. Additionally, we explore the vital role of electrolytes, particularly sodium, in maintaining optimal hydration levels and bolstering athletes' competitive advantage.



Understanding the True Essence of Hydration


Hydration is more than just avoiding dehydration; it encompasses the delicate equilibrium of cellular hydration, blood volume, and electrolyte balance. Achieving peak performance on the rugby field relies heavily on maintaining an adequate supply of oxygen to critical body systems, including the heart, brain, skin, and muscles. This optimal blood volume can only be sustained when electrolytes, especially sodium, are kept in balance.


Electrolytes: The Guardians of Hydration


Sodium, the primary electrolyte, acts as the gatekeeper of water movement within the body and is crucial for nerve conduction and muscle function. Merely consuming plain water, especially during intense competition, can lead to a decrease in blood sodium levels, ultimately impairing performance and causing more harm than good. True hydration necessitates the replenishment of all the essential electrolytes, such as sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium, and chromium, which are lost through sweat.



The Role of Diet in Electrolyte Balance


To prevent electrolyte imbalances, it is imperative to obtain an adequate supply of minerals from both food and beverages. Roughly 20-30% of daily fluid intake comes from food, while 70-80% is derived from beverages. Tap water alone contributes to about 60% of the daily fluid balance, underscoring the importance of a well-balanced diet and maintaining healthy organs and intestines to facilitate the absorption, reabsorption, and utilisation of essential minerals.


Electrolytes, such as sodium, potassium, and magnesium, play a crucial role in maintaining proper hydration and muscle function. In rugby, where players lose substantial amounts of sweat and electrolytes during matches, replenishing these minerals is essential.


  • Electrolyte Balance: Maintaining the right balance of electrolytes is crucial for preventing cramps and sustaining muscle function. Electrolyte-rich sports drinks can help rugby players stay hydrated and maintain their power output.


  • Cognitive Function: Proper electrolyte balance can also improve cognitive function. Electrolyte supplements have been shown to enhance decision-making and reaction time in athletes, which is vital for making split-second decisions on the rugby field.



Blood Flow Dynamics and Performance


During rugby matches, the body undergoes complex changes in blood flow distribution. Blood is redirected to the skin and working muscles, reducing its supply to the arteries that nourish the heart. This shift results in lower cardiac output, increased oxygen demand, heightened perceptions of fatigue, and reduced overall performance. As core body temperature rises, blood flow to muscles and vital organs further diminishes, hampering oxygen delivery and waste material removal. With increased sweat production and fluid loss, arterial blood volume drops, exacerbating the decline in cardiac output.


Exercise, especially vigorous workouts, can lead to a significant drop in blood volume within the first 5-15 minutes. This drop in blood volume, ranging from 8-10%, can have detrimental effects on your performance, including increased fatigue and dehydration. But what if there was a simple way to counteract this drop in blood volume? The answer lies in the combination of salt and water.



The Basics of Dehydration


Dehydration occurs when the body loses more fluids than it takes in. In rugby, this can happen due to intense physical exertion, sweating, and insufficient fluid intake. Even a small drop in body fluids can have a profound impact on an athlete's performance.


Dehydration and Power Output


  • Muscle Function: Dehydration can impair muscle function. When you're dehydrated, your muscles may cramp more easily, and they won't contract as efficiently. This can lead to a significant decrease in power output, which is critical for rugby players during tackles, sprints, and scrums.


  • Endurance: Rugby matches are physically demanding and can last for 80 minutes or more. Dehydrated players are more likely to experience fatigue earlier in the game. Reduced endurance can result in slower runs, weaker tackles, and an overall decline in performance.


  • Strength: Dehydration can also affect strength levels. Studies have shown that dehydrated athletes are not as strong as their well-hydrated counterparts. This could hinder a player's ability to push opponents or maintain their position in scrums.


Enhancing Blood Volume with Sodium


Boosting blood volume prior to competition with sodium and water can mitigate the risk of dehydration, electrolyte loss, and overheating, ultimately enhancing performance on the rugby field.



Research Insights


Several studies have investigated the effects of dehydration and hydration strategies on rugby players:

  • A study revealed that even a mild level of dehydration, as low as 2%, can impair coordination and cognitive tasks, suggesting that cognitive function is also vulnerable to dehydration's effects in rugby players.

  • Another study found that more than 80% of rugby players started training in a hypohydrated state. Fluid intake during training sessions varied depending on the nature of the exercise, with players sometimes overdrinking during resistance training and underdrinking during aerobic training. This underscores the need for tailored hydration strategies and education.

  • Research on rugby union players indicated that excessive fluid intake compared to fluid loss was prevalent among players. Additionally, some players were at risk of developing hyponatremia, emphasising the importance of carefully managing fluid intake.


In-Match Performance


Rugby matches are often won or lost in the final minutes, where physical and mental fatigue can play a decisive role. Staying adequately hydrated and replenishing lost electrolytes can give players the edge they need to perform at their best when it matters most.



Conclusion


In the arena of rugby, where every sprint, tackle, and decision counts, maintaining optimal hydration is not a mere formality but a strategic necessity. Dehydration's impact on power output, cognitive function, and overall in-match performance cannot be underestimated. The harmonious balance of electrolytes, particularly sodium, is the linchpin of successful hydration. To gain a competitive edge, rugby players must embrace a holistic approach to hydration, combining dietary choices with precise fluid management. Victory on the rugby field, often decided by fractions of a second and inches, belongs to those who recognise the true essence of hydration.


References:


  • Shirreffs, S. M. (2005). The importance of good hydration for work and exercise performance. Nutrition Reviews, 63(6), S14-S21.

  • Dugas, J. P., Oosthuizen, U., & Tucker, R. (2009). Electrolyte supplementation improves standing balance in rugby players. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(5), 332-336.

  • Sims, S. T., & Rehrer, N. J. (2007). Nutritional practices of rugby players: Areview. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(5), 509-520.

  • McNaughton, L. R., & Palmer, G. S. (1999). Sodium intake and sweat rates during National Basketball Association games. Journal of Athletic Training, 34(2), 168-173.

  • DiNicolantonio, Dr. James ; Land, Siim; Kennedy, Tristin. WIN: Achieve Peak Athletic Performance, Optimize Recovery and Become a Champion (pp. 47-48). Kindle Edition.

  • Adan, A. (2012). Cognitive Performance and Dehydration. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 31(2), 71–78. doi:10.1080/07315724.2012.10720011

  • Masironi, R., & Shaper, A. G. (1981). Epidemiological studies of health effects of water from different sources. Annual review of nutrition, 1, 375–400. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nu.01.070181.002111

  • https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36305875/

  • Jones BL, OʼHara JP, Till K, King RF. Dehydration and hyponatremia in professional rugby union players: a cohort study observing english premiership rugby union players during match play, field, and gym training in cool environmental conditions. J Strength Cond Res. 2015 Jan;29(1):107-15. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000620. PMID: 25029006.

·




23 views0 comments

Comments


bottom of page