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The Best Minerals And Electrolytes For Hydration [2024 Guide]


Symptoms of Dehydration

  • Dizziness or light-headedness

  • Headaches 

  • Tiredness or fatigue

  • Dry mouth

  • Muscle cramps

  • Dry lips and eyes

  • Passing small amounts of urine infrequently (less than three or four times a day)

Symptoms of Electrolyte Deficiency

  • Confusion and irritability

  • Diarrhoea or constipation

  • Fatigue

  • Headaches

  • Irregular or fast heart rate

  • Muscle cramps or weakness

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Numbness or tingling in limbs, fingers and toes

What Electrolytes can help with dehydration?

  • Sodium

  • Potassium

  • Magnesium

  • Calcium

When is the best time to take Electrolytes?

In the morning with water, topped up throughout the day.

How many Electrolytes do I need to avoid dehydration?

  • 3-4g of Sodium

  • Up to 3.5g of Potassium

  • More than 180mg of Magnesium

  • More than 450mg of Calcium

How long will it take for me to notice better hydration levels?

Within hours of replenishing the deficient electrolytes specific to you.


What Is Dehydration?

Dehydration occurs when your body loses more fluid than you take in. When the normal water content of your body is reduced, it upsets the balance of minerals (electrolytes) in your body, which affects the way it functions.


The human body is approximately 45-75% water [1]. It lubricates the joints and eyes, aids digestion, flushes out waste and toxins, and keeps the skin healthy.


Symptoms include:

  • Dizziness or light-headedness

  • Headaches

  • Tiredness or fatigue

  • Dry mouth

  • Muscle cramps, lips and eyes

  • Passing small amounts of urine infrequently (less than three or four times a day) [2]


Also, if you find yourself constantly applying lip balm, then this may mean you are dehydrated and your habit of applying the balm is covering up an early sign of this. 


Why Am I Dehydrated?

There are many ways we lose fluid: sweat, tears, vomiting, urine or diarrhoea, however sometimes it is simply that we are not drinking enough, drinking it too quickly or that our water does not contain enough electrolyte to be efficiently absorbed. The severity of dehydration can depend on a number of factors, such as climate, level of physical activity and diet.


If you are thinking to yourself, “I sip on lots of water (more than 2 litres) throughout the day and always need to go to the toilet”, then it is reasonable to assume that you drinking enough water, however you aren’t getting enough electrolytes to actually absorb and retain the fluid you are drinking.


What Are Electrolytes?

Electrolytes are minerals with positive or negative charges that conduct electricity when dissolved in water. The human body houses six types of electrolytes: sodium, potassium, calcium, bicarbonate, chloride, magnesium, and phosphorus. 


How Do Electrolytes Help Avoid Dehydration?

Electrolytes are vital for dehydration due to their role in fluid absorption and utilisation. Those who view hydration simply as drinking water need to rapidly change their view.


Hydration isn’t just about preventing dehydration, it’s about our arteries having optimal blood volume, supplying oxygen to the heart, brain, skin and optimising working muscles. This can be achieved only when our electrolytes are all in balance and within optimal ranges. Simply drinking plain water in large amounts, without electrolytes and minerals, can actually cause more harm than good. 


Which Electrolytes Prevent Dehydration?

Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium are all pivotal in reducing symptoms and avoiding dehydration.


1. Sodium: In the context of cellular hydration, sodium serves as a key solute, influencing the movement of water in and out of cells. One of the primary mechanisms through which sodium contributes to cellular hydration is the maintenance of osmotic pressure (movement of fluid from high concentration to a lower one). Cells contain a variety of solutes, including ions and proteins, which contribute to their osmotic pressure. Sodium, being a prevalent extracellular ion, creates an osmotic gradient that encourages water to move into cells.



Studies have shown that sodium ions actively transport water molecules into cells through a process called facilitated diffusion. This process involves the movement of water across cell membranes with the help of proteins that facilitate the transport of sodium and water together. The co-transport of sodium and water ensures a continuous influx of water into cells, promoting hydration at the cellular level [3].


Furthermore, sodium plays a crucial role in the function of aquaporins, specialized proteins that facilitate the movement of water across cell membranes. Research has demonstrated that the activity of aquaporins is influenced by the presence of sodium ions. The interaction between sodium and aquaporins enhances the efficiency of water transport into cells, aiding in the maintenance of cellular hydration [4].


2. Potassium: The relationship between sodium and potassium is vital for so many cellular functions. When it comes to hydration, potassium is most abundant inside the cell and sodium is most abundant outside. Having more sodium outside helps to move water into the cells [5]. 


If however, sodium levels drop then a significant shift in osmolarity occurs which can cause water to move out of the cell and drags potassium with it [6]. This then effects the cells ability to hydrate. 


3. Magnesium: In its dissolved state, magnesium has a tighter bond with water molecules than the other electrolytes. In its dissolved state, magnesium bonds better with more water molecules, which means it will hold more water molecules around it. Therefore its efficiency in holding and transporting water is also higher than calcium, potassium and sodium. [7] 


Something else to note is that although only 8-10 mg of magnesium is lost per hour of exercise in sweat, this will increase as the body becomes more salt depleted to spare sodium. In individuals on who are deficient in sodium, can increase their loss of magnesium 10X through sweat [8][9]. 


4. Calcium:  Calcium is mainly characterised by it having a higher charge density than sodium, and ability to cluster large water molecules bound to it in solution. As the charge density of calcium will be higher, it more easily transports water to cells [10].


How To Address Dehydration with Electrolytes

While electrolyte levels aren't the sole determinants of dehydration symptoms, maintaining a balanced ratio is essential. Natural sources of electrolytes include bananas, beans, avocados, seafood, chicken, dairy, and nut butter.


When is the best time to take Electrolytes for Dehydration?

It’s best to aim for a healthy, nutrient-dense diet all of the time rather than waiting until you have symptoms of dehydration. That’s because, as we have seen, electrolytes found in fish, meat, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts and wholegrains, can support your mineral levels and therefore act as a preventative measure. Naru Revive can be taken on an ongoing basis if you don’t get all of your nutrients from food sources; take it daily, in the morning.



How Many Electrolytes Do I Have To Take To Improve Hydration Levels?

If you are taking electrolytes as a preventative measure and general health benefits, then you can take an amount in line with the Nutrient Reference Intake. If you are looking to optimise your electrolyte status and increase the likelihood of boosting your energy levels, our research suggests the following:


  • Sodium: Our sodium balance is maintained at a level of sodium intake around 3 to 4 grams per day (3,000 to 4,000 mg) for most people [11]. You’ll find 1000 mg in our Naru Revive.


  • Potassium: Over 3,500 mg/day of potassium, which is above the adequate intake for men and women[12]. Most importantly, you should aim for a 3:1 ratio of potassium to sodium [13], found in our Naru Revive


  • Magnesium: Studies indicate that 180-320 mg per day is enough to maintain a positive magnesium balance, but 107 mg is not enough[14],[15],[16],[17]. Naru Revive contains 188mg of magnesium


  • Calcium: An intake of 2,000 mg has demonstrated a positive calcium balance of 450 mg in normal subjects [18]. The recommended ratio of calcium to magnesium is 2:1 both for daily dietary intake and supplementation[19]. Naru Revive provides 300mg.


How Long Does It Take For Electrolytes To Work?

Trials have varied in length and it depends on the ingredient in question and the dose. Some research and anecdotal evidence suggests you can feel an immediate benefit within hours of balancing electrolytes. This is likely linked to how deficient one is in electrolytes; the more deficient the quicker the response.


How Much Water Should You Be Drinking?

Aim to consume 237 mL of fluid per hour for the first 10 hours of your day. Note: these are averages! You do not need to neurotically consume 8 237 mL every hour but rather consume around 2.4 Litres across the day. The issue is simply that most people do not drink enough water volume in the waking hours of their day. Drinking 2.4 L in the first 10 hours after waking can help most people offset dehydration [20].


Why Should I Drink My Electrolytes?

Water is by far a more bioavailable source of minerals because they are dissolved and charged in the liquid, rather than bound to food particles. At the end of the day, what matters is what you end up absorbing. Different foods also have ingredients and compounds, such as phytates, fibre or phytonutrients, that will decrease the amount of minerals you will absorb. With food, the absorption of minerals is never as high as what occurs from liquid because some of the nutrients are lost in the stool due to lack of digestion [21].


Why Naru Revive?

Naru Revive, contains sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium in optimal doses and ratios, ensuring a tangible difference in how you feel. This hydration supplement supports electrolyte balance, especially during fasting, without any hidden surprises.


The Verdict

In the pursuit of optimal hydration, understanding the role of electrolytes, especially sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium, becomes paramount. Prioritising electrolyte balance is key to combating dehydration and supporting overall health. Whether obtained through a nutrient-dense diet or supplemented with products like Naru Revive, a conscious approach to electrolyte intake contributes to sustained hydration and improved well-being.


Electrolyte Supplement For Energy


References

[1] Ohashi, Y., Sakai, K., Hase, H., & Joki, N. (2018). Dry weight targeting: The art and science of conventional hemodialysis. Seminars in Dialysis, 31(6), 551–556. doi:10.1111/sdi.12721



[3] Cooper GM. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000. Transport of Small Molecules. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9847/


[4] Agarwal SK, Gupta A. Aquaporins: The renal water channels. Indian J Nephrol. 2008 Jul;18(3):95-100. doi: 10.4103/0971-4065.43687. PMID: 20142913; PMCID: PMC2813137.


[5] Udensi UK, Tchounwou PB. Potassium Homeostasis, Oxidative Stress, and Human Disease. Int J Clin Exp Physiol. 2017;4(3):111-122. doi: 10.4103/ijcep.ijcep_43_17. PMID: 29218312; PMCID: PMC5716641.  


[6] Rastegar A. Serum Potassium. In: Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, editors. SourceClinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3. Boston: Butterworths; 1990. Chapter 195. 1990 1990.


[7] Jahnen-Dechent W, Ketteler M. Magnesium basics. Clin Kidney J. 2012 Feb;5(Suppl 1):i3-i14. doi: 10.1093/ndtplus/sfr163. PMID: 26069819; PMCID: PMC4455825


[8] Nishimuta, M., Kodama, N., Yoshitake, Y., Shimada, M., & Serizawa, N. (2018). Dietary Salt (Sodium Chloride) Requirement and Adverse Effects of Salt Restriction in Humans. Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology, 64(2), 83–89. https://doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.64.83


[9] Nishimuta, M., Kodama, N., Morikuni, E., Yoshioka, Y., Matsuzaki, N., Takeyama, H., Yamada, H., & Kitajima, H. (2005). Positive correlation between dietary intake of sodium and balances of calcium and magnesium in young Japanese adults--low sodium intake is a risk factor for loss of calcium and magnesium--. Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology, 51 4, 265-70 .



[11] Seelig M. S. (1990). Increased need for magnesium with the use of combined oestrogen and calcium for osteoporosis treatment. Magnesium research, 3(3), 197–215.


[12] Hannon, M. J., & Verbalis, J. G. (2014). Sodium homeostasis and bone. Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, 23(4), 370–376. doi:10.1097/01.mnh.0000447022.51722.f4


[13] Passare, G., et al. 2004. Sodium and potassium disturbances in the elderly: prevalence and association with drug use. Clin Drug Investig 24(9): 535–544.


[14]  Kovesdy. Hyponatremia, hypernatremia, and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease with and without congestive heart failure. 677–684. 


[15]  Wannamethee, S. G., et al. 2016. Mild hyponatremia, hypernatremia and incident cardiovascular disease and mortality in older men: a population-based cohort study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 26(1): 12–19.


[16] Borer K. T. (2005). Physical activity in the prevention and amelioration of osteoporosis in women : interaction of mechanical, hormonal and dietary factors. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 35(9), 779–830. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200535090-00004


[17] Zemel, M. B., Richards, J., Milstead, A., & Campbell, P. (2005). Effects of calcium and dairy on body composition and weight loss in African-American adults. Obesity research, 13(7), 1218–1225. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2005.144 


[18] Heaney R. P. (2003). Normalizing calcium intake: projected population effects for body weight. The Journal of nutrition, 133(1), 268S–270S. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/133.1.268S 


[19] Davies, K. M., Heaney, R. P., Recker, R. R., Lappe, J. M., Barger-Lux, M. J., Rafferty, K., & Hinders, S. (2000). Calcium intake and body weight. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 85(12), 4635–4638. https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem.85.12.7063 



[21] DiNicolantonio, James; Land, Siim. The Mineral Fix: How to Optimize Your Mineral Intake for Energy, Longevity, Immunity, Sleep and More . Kindle Edition.



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